1. Mastery Must Focus on Fluency
Fluency includes accuracy, efficiency, flexibility, and selection of appropriate strategies.
2. Fluency Develops in Three Phases
Students progress through three stages: counting, deriving and mastery, as they learn the basic facts in any operation.
3. Foundational Facts Must Precede Derived Facts
The most effective approach to learning facts requires students to master foundational facts, facts that illustrate a specific pattern or number relationship, before learning derived fact strategies.
4. Timed Tests Do Not Assess Fluency
Timed testing is ineffective at assessing any of the four compenents of fluency.
5. Students Need Substantial and Enjoyable Practice
Instead of using timed tests, teachers should engage students with substantial and enjoyable practice, using games like those in this book.